Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

Peter Molnar

Peter Molnar

Research Interests

I teach a little and carry out research in the Department of Geological Sciences at the University of Colorado. I was trained as a seismologist, but most of my current work addresses either geodynamics or climate. I study how mountain ranges are built and how the dynamics of flow within the mantle affects the earth’s surface. I also study how manifestations of geodynamic processes, like high mountain ranges and plateaus or ocean gateways, have affected climate on geologic time scales.


Current Research

The Great American Biotic Interchange and the Ice Age

I am pursuing the Great American Biotic Interchange, an event that occurred in pulses since the Ice Age began and ice first covered Canada approximately 2.5 million years ago (Ma). In a series of perhaps four waves, large animals, mostly mammals, crossed from North to South or South to North America. Familiar examples are llamas and alpacas that evolved from now extinct North American camelids and thrive in South America, and armadillos and anteaters that came north from South America. All passed through the Isthmus of Panama, but virtually none would do so today; most are thought to prefer grassy savannas to jungles with snakes, crocodiles, and mosquitoes. Controversy has surrounded the reasons behind the Great American Biotic Interchange, with some arguing for an emergence of the Isthmus of Panama at 2.5-4 Ma, and others thinking that the Isthmus has been in place since 10-15 Ma (as recent evidence suggests), and that the key was cooling and aridification of Panama when large ice sheets expanded across Canada and as far south as St. Louis [Molnar, 2008]. An analysis of both different fossil taxa and molecular lineages suggests that except for sloths and a few rodents, most large mammals passed through Panama after 2.5 Ma [Bacon et al., 2016]. With Argentine and North American colleagues, I am trying to pursue this by dating precisely the first appearances of various taxa that cross from North America to South America.

Ice ages and their influence on the Great American Biotic Interchange. A: Map of the region. B: Representative mammal species that migrated through Panama (anteater, elephant-like gomphothere, and porcupine). C: Datasets suggesting a drying environment at 2.5 Ma, shown by δ18O from benthic foraminifera, a proxy for global temperature, smoothed with a Gaussian window of 200 ky; eustatic sea level; and magnetic susceptibility, a proxy for ice rafted debris and Northern Hemisphere glaciation. D: Mammal migration estimated from fossil and molecular data, plotted based on occurrence data binned by million year intervals and calculated for abundance and diversity. Dashed line at 2.5 Ma reflects onset of Ice Ages. (From Bacon et al. [2016].)

View Publications

  • Bacon, CD, P Molnar, A Antonelli, AJ Crawford, C Montes and MC Vallejo-Pareja (2016), Quaternary glaciation and the Great American Biotic Interchange. Geology Version: 1 44 (5) 375-378, issn: 0091-7613, ids: DK4HG, doi: 10.1130/G37624.1
  • Chang, H, LY Li, P Molnar and NA Niemi (2016), Activation of a Minor Graben and Pull-Apart Basin Just East of Bukadaban during the 2001 Kunlun Earthquake (M-w 7.8). Bull. Seismol. Soc. Amer. Version: 1 106 (6) 2922-2926, issn: 0037-1106, ids: ED6BG, doi: 10.1785/0120160135
  • Bilham, R, T Niebauer, C Pearson and P Molnar (2016), Changes in absolute gravity 2000-2015, South Island, New Zealand. N. Z. J. Geol. Geophys. Version: 1 59 (1) 176-186, issn: 0028-8306, ids: DP0EG, doi: 10.1080/00288306.2015.1108922
  • Zietlow, DW, PH Molnar and AF Sheehan (2016), Teleseismic P wave tomography of South Island, New Zealand upper mantle: Evidence of subduction of Pacific lithosphere since 45 Ma. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 121 (6) 4427-4445, issn: 2169-9313, ids: DT6XD, doi: 10.1002/2015JB012624
  • Gill, EC, B Rajagopalan, P Molnar and TM Marchitto (2016), Reduced-dimension reconstruction of the equatorial Pacific SST and zonal wind fields over the past 10,000years using Mg/Ca and alkenone records. Paleoceanography Version: 1 31 (7) 928-952, issn: 0883-8305, ids: DW2NR, doi: 10.1002/2016PA002948
  • Mora-Paez, H, DJ Mencin, P Molnar, H Diederix, L Cardona-Piedrahita, JR Pelaez-Gaviria and Y Corchuelo-Cuervo (2016), GPS velocities and the construction of the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 43 (16) 8407-8416, issn: 0094-8276, ids: DX5TC, doi: 10.1002/2016GL069795
  • Molnar, P and GA Houseman (2015), Effects of a low-viscosity lower crust on topography and gravity at convergent mountain belts during gravitational instability of mantle lithosphere. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 120 (1) 537-551, issn: 2169-9313, ids: CC2CH, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011349
  • Molnar, P, PC England and CH Jones (2015), Mantle dynamics, isostasy, and the support of high terrain. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 120 (3) 1932-1957, issn: 2169-9313, ids: CG3EF, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011724
  • Molnar, P (2015), Gravitational instability of mantle lithosphere and core complexes. Tectonics Version: 1 34 (3) 478-487, issn: 0278-7407, ids: CH2DY, doi: 10.1002/2014TC003808
  • Molnar, P and TW Cronin (2015), Growth of the Maritime Continent and its possible contribution to recurring Ice Ages. Paleoceanography Version: 1 30 (3) 196-225, issn: 0883-8305, ids: CH2EG, doi: 10.1002/2014PA002752
  • Ge, WP, P Molnar, ZK Shen and Q Li (2015), Present-day crustal thinning in the southern and northern Tibetan Plateau revealed by GPS measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 42 (13) 5227-5235, issn: 0094-8276, ids: CN8LG, doi: 10.1002/2015GL064347
  • Gill, EC, B Rajagopalan and P Molnar (2015), Subseasonal variations in spatial signatures of ENSO on the Indian summer monsoon from 1901 to 2009. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 120 (16) 8165-8185, issn: 2169-897X, ids: CU3KX, doi: 10.1002/2015JD023184
  • Gill, EC, B Rajagopalan and PH Molnar (2015), An assessment of the mean annual precipitation needed to sustain Lake Sambhar in Rajasthan, India, during mid-Holocene time. Holocene Version: 1 25 (12) 1923-1934, issn: 0959-6836, ids: CW8NI, doi: 10.1177/0959683615596817
  • England, P and P Molnar (2015), Rheology of the lithosphere beneath the central and western Tien Shan. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 120 (5) 3803-3823, issn: 2169-9313, ids: CK7YV, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011733
  • Cronin, TW, KA Emanuel and P Molnar (2015), Island precipitation enhancement and the diurnal cycle in radiative-convective equilibrium. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. Version: 1 141 (689) 1017-1034, issn: 0035-9009, ids: CL2VW, doi: 10.1002/qj.2443
  • Rajagopalan, B and P Molnar (2014), Combining regional moist static energy and ENSO for forecasting of early and late season Indian monsoon rainfall and its extremes. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 41 (12) 4323-4331, issn: 0094-8276, ids: AN0SM, doi: 10.1002/2014GL060429
  • Zietlow, DW, AF Sheehan, PH Molnar, MK Savage, G Hirth, JA Collins and BH Hager (2014), Upper mantle seismic anisotropy at a strike-slip boundary: South Island, New Zealand. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 119 (2) 1020-1040, issn: 2169-9313, ids: AD2AK, doi: 10.1002/2013JB010676
  • Zhang, HP, PZ Zhang, JD Champagnac, P Molnar, RS Anderson, E Kirby, WH Craddock and SF Liu (2014), Pleistocene drainage reorganization driven by the isostatic response to deep incision into the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Geology Version: 1 42 (4) 303-306, issn: 0091-7613, ids: AD4TT, doi: 10.1130/G35115.1
  • Mestas-Nunez, AM and P Molnar (2014), A mechanism for freshening the Caribbean Sea in pre-Ice Age time. Paleoceanography Version: 1 29 (6) 508-517, issn: 0883-8305, ids: AN5VZ, doi: 10.1002/2013PA002515
  • Collins, JA and P Molnar (2014), Pn anisotropy beneath the South Island of New Zealand and implications for distributed deformation in continental lithosphere. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 119 (10) 7745-7767, issn: 2169-9313, ids: AU1GH, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011233
  • Rajagopalan, B and P Molnar (2013), Signatures of Tibetan Plateau heating on Indian summer monsoon rainfall variability. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 118 (3) 1170-1178, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 129LC, doi: 10.1002/jgrd.50124
  • Zheng, WJ, PZ Zhang, WP Ge, P Molnar, HP Zhang, DY Yuan and JH Liu (2013), Late Quaternary slip rate of the South Heli Shan Fault (northern Hexi Corridor, NW China) and its implications for northeastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau. Tectonics Version: 1 32 (2) 271-293, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 152IP, doi: 10.1002/tect.20022
  • Zheng, WJ, HP Zhang, PZ Zhang, P Molnar, XW Liu and DY Yuan (2013), Late Quaternary slip rates of the thrust faults in western Hexi Corridor (Northern Qilian Shan, China) and their implications for northeastward growth of the Tibetan Plateau. Geosphere Version: 1 9 (2) 342-354, issn: 1553-040X, ids: 168JH, doi: 10.1130/GES00775.1
  • Molnar, P and GA Houseman (2013), Rayleigh-Taylor instability, lithospheric dynamics, surface topography at convergent mountain belts, and gravity anomalies. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 118 (5) 2544-2557, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 256HH, doi: 10.1002/jgrb.50203
  • Ischuk, A, R Bendick, A Rybin, P Molnar, SF Khan, S Kuzikov, S Mohadjer, U Saydullaev, Z Ilyasova, G Schelochkov and AV Zubovich (2013), Kinematics of the Pamir and Hindu Kush regions from GPS geodesy. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 118 (5) 2408-2416, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 256HH, doi: 10.1002/jgrb.50185
  • Yuan, DY, WP Ge, ZW Chen, CY Li, ZC Wang, HP Zhang, PZ Zhang, DW Zheng, WJ Zheng, WH Craddock, KE Dayem, AR Duvall, BG Hough, RO Lease, JD Champagnac, DW Burbank, MK Clark, KA Farley, CN Garzione, E Kirby, P Molnar and GH Roe (2013), The growth of northeastern Tibet and its relevance to large-scale continental geodynamics: A review of recent studies. Tectonics Version: 1 32 (5) 1358-1370, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 256JH, doi: 10.1002/tect.20081
  • Zhang, HP, WH Craddock, RO Lease, WT Wang, DY Yuan, PZ Zhang, P Molnar, DW Zheng and WJ Zheng (2012), Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Chaka basin and its implications for mountain building processes in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. Basin Res. Version: 1 24 (1) 31-50, issn: 0950-091X, ids: 873XG, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2117.2011.00512.x
  • Molnar, P (2012), Isostasy can't be ignored. Nat. Geosci. Version: 1 5 (2) 83-83, issn: 1752-0894, ids: 893ZU, doi: 10.1038/ngeo1383
  • Champagnac, JD, P Molnar, C Sue and F Herman (2012), Tectonics, climate, and mountain topography. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 117 , Art. No. B02403, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 899OW, doi: 10.1029/2011JB008348
  • Molnar, P and B Rajagopalan (2012), Late Miocene upward and outward growth of eastern Tibet and decreasing monsoon rainfall over the northwestern Indian subcontinent since similar to 10 Ma. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 39 , Art. No. L09702, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 937RE, doi: 10.1029/2012GL051305
  • Rajagopalan, B and P Molnar (2012), Pacific Ocean sea-surface temperature variability and predictability of rainfall in the early and late parts of the Indian summer monsoon season. Clim. Dyn. Version: 1 39 (6) 1543-1557, issn: 0930-7575, ids: 005AO, doi: 10.1007/s00382-011-1194-y
  • Perez, OJ, R Bilham, M Sequera, L Molina, P Gavotti, H Codallo, C Moncayo, C Rodriguez, R Velandia, M Guzman and P Molnar (2011), GPS DERIVED VELOCITY FIELD IN WESTERN VENEZUELA: DEXTRAL SHEAR COMPONENT ASSOCIATED TO THE BOCONO FAULT AND CONVERGENT COMPONENT NORMAL TO THE ANDES. Interciencia Version: 1 36 (1) 39-44, issn: 0378-1844, ids: 711DV
  • Molnar, P (2011), Jack Oliver (1923-2011) OBITUARY. Nature Version: 1 470 (7333) 176-176, issn: 0028-0836, ids: 718RQ, doi: 10.1038/470176a
  • Molnar, P and T Rautian (2011), Harry Fielding Reid Medal Citation for Tatyana Glebovna Rautian. Seismol. Res. Lett. Version: 1 82 (5) 700-702, issn: 0895-0695, ids: 815JX
  • Yuan, DY, JD Champagnac, WP Ge, P Molnar, PZ Zhang, WJ Zheng, HP Zhang and XW Liu (2011), Late Quaternary right-lateral slip rates of faults adjacent to the lake Qinghai, northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Version: 1 123 (10-Sep) 2016-2030, issn: 0016-7606, ids: 799KR, doi: 10.1130/B30315.1
  • Collins, JA, P Molnar and AF Sheehan (2011), Multibeam bathymetric surveys of submarine volcanoes and mega-pockmarks on the Chatham Rise, New Zealand. N. Z. J. Geol. Geophys. Version: 1 54 (3) 329-339, issn: 0028-8306, ids: 880QM, doi: 10.1080/00288306.2011.589860
  • Molnar, P (2010), Deuterium and oxygen isotopes, paleoelevations of the Sierra Nevada, and Cenozoic climate. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Version: 1 122 (8-Jul) 1106-1115, issn: 0016-7606, ids: 605MI, doi: 10.1130/B30001.1
  • Molnar, P, WR Boos and DS Battisti (2010), Orographic Controls on Climate and Paleoclimate of Asia: Thermal and Mechanical Roles for the Tibetan Plateau. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. Version: 1 38 77-102, Ed. Jeanloz, R; Freeman, KH, issn: 0084-6597, ids: BPF37, isbn: 978-0-8243-2038-6, doi: 10.1146/annurev-earth-040809-152456
  • Dayem, KE, P Molnar, DS Battisti and GH Roe (2010), Lessons learned from oxygen isotopes in modern precipitation applied to interpretation of speleothem records of paleoclimate from eastern Asia. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 295 (2-Jan) 219-230, issn: 0012-821X, ids: 613JD, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2010.04.003
  • Beavan, J, P Denys, M Denham, B Hager, T Herring and P Molnar (2010), Distribution of present-day vertical deformation across the Southern Alps, New Zealand, from 10 years of GPS data. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 37 , Art. No. L16305, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 641OR, doi: 10.1029/2010GL044165
  • Molnar, P and KE Dayem (2010), Major intracontinental strike-slip faults and contrasts in lithospheric strength. Geosphere Version: 1 6 (4) 444-467, issn: 1553-040X, ids: 642GW, doi: 10.1130/GES00519.1
  • Duret, F, NM Shapiro, Z Cao, V Levin, P Molnar and S Roecker (2010), Surface wave dispersion across Tibet: Direct evidence for radial anisotropy in the crust. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 37 , Art. No. L16306, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 644WN, doi: 10.1029/2010GL043811
  • Zubovich, AV, XQ Wang, YG Scherba, GG Schelochkov, R Reilinger, C Reigber, OI Mosienko, P Molnar, W Michajljow, VI Makarov, J Li, SI Kuzikov, TA Herring, MW Hamburger, BH Hager, YM Dang, VD Bragin and RT Beisenbaev (2010), GPS velocity field for the Tien Shan and surrounding regions. Tectonics Version: 1 29 , Art. No. TC6014, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 699CA, doi: 10.1029/2010TC002772
  • Champagnac, JD, DY Yuan, WP Ge, P Molnar and WJ Zheng (2010), Slip rate at the north-eastern front of the Qilian Shan, China. Terr. Nova Version: 1 22 (3) 180-187, issn: 0954-4879, ids: 595KM, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2010.00932.x
  • Mohadjer, S, R Bendick, A Ischuk, S Kuzikov, A Kostuk, U Saydullaev, S Lodi, DM Kakar, A Wasy, MA Khan, P Molnar, R Bilham and AV Zubovich (2010), Partitioning of India-Eurasia convergence in the Pamir-Hindu Kush from GPS measurements. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 37 , Art. No. L04305, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 562FO, doi: 10.1029/2009GL041737
  • Harig, C, P Molnar and GA Houseman (2010), Lithospheric thinning and localization of deformation during Rayleigh-Taylor instability with nonlinear rheology and implications for intracontinental magmatism. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 115 , Art. No. B02205, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 558ZY, doi: 10.1029/2009JB006422
  • Dayem, KE, P Molnar, MK Clark and GA Houseman (2009), Far-field lithospheric deformation in Tibet during continental collision. Tectonics Version: 1 28 , Art. No. TC6005, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 528LU, doi: 10.1029/2008TC002344
  • Dayem, KE, GA Houseman and P Molnar (2009), Localization of shear along a lithospheric strength discontinuity: Application of a continuous deformation model to the boundary between Tibet and the Tarim Basin. Tectonics Version: 1 28 , Art. No. TC3002, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 449YQ, doi: 10.1029/2008TC002264
  • Molnar, P and JM Stock (2009), Slowing of India's convergence with Eurasia since 20 Ma and its implications for Tibetan mantle dynamics. Tectonics Version: 1 28 , Art. No. TC3001, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 446EX, doi: 10.1029/2008TC002271
  • Jochum, M, B Fox-Kemper, PH Molnar and C Shields (2009), Differences in the Indonesian seaway in a coupled climate model and their relevance to Pliocene climate and El Nino. Paleoceanography Version: 1 24 , Art. No. PA1212, issn: 0883-8305, ids: 426DG, doi: 10.1029/2008PA001678
  • Molnar, P (2008), Closing of the Central American Seaway and the ice age: A critical review. Paleoceanography Version: 1 23 (1) , Art. No. PA2201, issn: 0883-8305, ids: 289UM, doi: 10.1029/2007PA001574
  • Burov, EB and R Molnar (2008), Small and large-amplitude gravitational instability of an elastically compressible viscoelastic Maxwell solid overlying an inviscid incompressible fluid: Dependence of growth rates on wave number and elastic constants at low Deborah numbers. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 275 (4-Mar) 370-381, issn: 0012-821X, ids: 380SB, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.08.032
  • Harig, C, P Molnar and GA Houseman (2008), Rayleigh-Taylor instability under a shear stress free top boundary condition and its relevance to removal of mantle lithosphere from beneath the Sierra Nevada. Tectonics Version: 1 27 (6) , Art. No. TC6019, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 390PH, doi: 10.1029/2007TC002241
  • Jaupart, C, P Molnar and E Cottrell (2007), Instability of a chemically dense layer heated from below and overlain by a deep less viscous fluid. J. Fluid Mech. Version: 1 572 433-469, issn: 0022-1120, ids: 139MA, doi: 10.1017/S0022112006003521
  • Dayem, KE, DC Noone and P Molnar (2007), Tropical western Pacific warm pool and maritime continent precipitation rates and their contrasting relationships with the Walker Circulation. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 112 (D6) , Art. No. D06101, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 147QM, doi: 10.1029/2006JD007870
  • Molnar, P and CN Garzione (2007), Bounds on the viscosity coefficient of continental lithosphere from removal of mantle lithosphere beneath the Altiplano and Eastern Cordillera. Tectonics Version: 1 26 (2) , Art. No. TC2013, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 163GL, doi: 10.1029/2006TC001964
  • England, PC, P Molnar and FM Richter (2007), Kelvin, Perry and the age of the earth. Am. Scientist Version: 1 95 (4) 342-349, issn: 0003-0996, ids: 176WU, doi: 10.1511/2007.66.342
  • Champagnac, JD, P Molnar, RS Anderson, C Sue and B Delacou (2007), Quaternary erosion-induced isostatic rebound in the western Alps. Geology Version: 1 35 (3) 195-198, issn: 0091-7613, ids: 184FY, doi: 10.1130/G23053A.1
  • Molnar, P, RS Anderson and SP Anderson (2007), Tectonics, fracturing of rock, and erosion. J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf. Version: 1 112 (F3) , Art. No. F03014, issn: 2169-9003, ids: 202AM, doi: 10.1029/2005JF000433
  • Huybers, P and P Molnar (2007), Tropical cooling and the onset of North American glaciation. Clim. Past. Version: 1 3 (3) 549-557, issn: 1814-9324, ids: 215CJ
  • Molnar, P (2007), An examination of evidence used to infer late cenozoic "Uplift" of mountain belts and other high terrain: What scientific question does such evidence pose?. J. Geol. Soc. India Version: 1 National Workshop on Sahyadri - Evolution and Erosional Processes 70 (3) 395-410, Bangalore, INDIA, MAY, 2005, issn: 0016-7622, ids: 231EH
  • Zhang, PZ, P Molnar and XW Xu (2007), Late Quaternary and present-day rates of slip along the Altyn Tagh Fault, northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau. Tectonics Version: 1 26 (5) , Art. No. TC5010, issn: 0278-7407, ids: 218XB, doi: 10.1029/2006TC002014
  • Molnar, P and MA Cane (2007), Early pliocene (pre-Ice Age) El Nino-like global climate: Which El Nino?. Geosphere Version: 1 3 (5) 337-365, issn: 1553-040X, ids: 240HA, doi: 10.1130/GES00103.1
  • Anderson, RS, P Molnar and MA Kessler (2006), Features of glacial valley profiles simply explained. J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf. Version: 1 111 (F1) , Art. No. F01004, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 010BI, doi: 10.1029/2005JF000344
  • Garzione, CN, P Molnar, JC Libarkin and BJ MacFadden (2006), Rapid late Miocene rise of the Bolivian Altiplano: Evidence for removal of mantle lithosphere. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. Version: 1 241 (4-Mar) 543-556, issn: 0012-821X, ids: 011SS, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2005.11.026
  • Molnar, P, RS Anderson, G Kier and J Rose (2006), Relationships among probability distributions of stream discharges in floods, climate, bed load transport, and river incision. J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf. Version: 1 111 (F2) , Art. No. F02001, issn: 2169-9003, ids: 039DU, doi: 10.1029/2005JF000310
  • Molnar, P, GA Houseman and PC England (2006), Earth science - Palaeo-altimetry of Tibet. Nature Version: 1 444 (7117) E4-E4, issn: 0028-0836, ids: 105GL, doi: 10.1038/nature05368, PubMed ID: 17099703
  • England, P and P Molnar (2005), Late Quaternary to decadal velocity fields in Asia. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 110 (B12) , Art. No. B12401, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 997MO, doi: 10.1029/2004JB003541
  • Hilley, GE, R Burgmann, PZ Zhang and P Molnar (2005), Bayesian inference of plastosphere viscosities near the Kunlun Fault, northern Tibet. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 32 (1) , Art. No. L01302, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 890KQ, doi: 10.1029/2004GL021658
  • Molnar, P (2005), Mio-pliocene growth of the Tibetan Plateau and evolution of East Asian climate. Palaeontol. electron. Version: 1 8 (1) , Art. No. 2A, issn: 1094-8074, ids: 018WW
  • Shapiro, NM, MH Ritzwoller, P Molnar and V Levin (2004), Thinning and flow of Tibetan crust constrained by seismic anisotropy. Science Version: 1 305 (5681) 233-236, issn: 0036-8075, ids: 835QQ, doi: 10.1126/science.1098276, PubMed ID: 15247475
  • Molnar, P and CH Jones (2004), A test of laboratory based rheological parameters of olivine from an analysis of late Cenozoic convective removal of mantle lithosphere beneath the Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Geophys. J. Int. Version: 1 156 (3) 555-564, issn: 0956-540X, ids: 777VM, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02138.x
  • Molnar, P and GA Houseman (2004), The effects of buoyant crust on the gravitational instability of thickened mantle lithosphere at zones of intracontinental convergence. Geophys. J. Int. Version: 1 158 (3) 1134-1150, issn: 0956-540X, ids: 848LY, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2004.02312.x
  • Zhang, PZ, Z Shen, M Wang, WJ Gan, R Burgmann and P Molnar (2004), Continuous deformation of the Tibetan Plateau from global positioning system data. Geology Version: 1 32 (9) 809-812, issn: 0091-7613, ids: 851PG, doi: 10.1130/G20554.1
  • Cottrell, E, C Jaupart and P Molnar (2004), Marginal stability of thick continental lithosphere. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 31 (18) , Art. No. L18612, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 861HZ, doi: 10.1029/2004GL020332
  • Wilson, CK, CH Jones, P Molnar, AF Sheehan and OS Boyd (2004), Distributed deformation in the lower crust and upper mantle beneath a continental strike-slip fault zone: Marlborough fault system, South Island, New Zealand. Geology Version: 1 32 (10) 837-840, issn: 0091-7613, ids: 861LD, doi: 10.1130/G20657.1
  • Molnar, P (2004), Interactions among topographically induced elastic stress, static fatigue, and valley incision. J. Geophys. Res.-Earth Surf. Version: 1 109 (F2) , Art. No. F02010, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 863OT, doi: 10.1029/2003JF000097
  • Jade, S, BC Bhatt, Z Yang, R Bendick, VK Gaur, P Molnar, MB Anand and D Kumar (2004), GPS measurements from the Ladakh Himalaya, India: Preliminary tests of plate-like or continuous deformation in Tibet. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Version: 1 116 (12-Nov) 1385-1391, issn: 0016-7606, ids: 869TH, doi: 10.1130/B25357.1
  • Molnar, P (2004), Late cenozoic increase in accumulation rates of terrestrial sediment: How might climate change have affected erosion rates?. Annu. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. Version: 1 32 67-89, issn: 0084-6597, ids: 825JI, doi: 10.1146/annurev.earth.32.091003.143456
  • Brown, ET, R Bendick, DL Bourles, V Gaur, P Molnar, GM Raisbeck and F Yiou (2003), Early Holocene climate recorded in geomorphological features in Western Tibet. Paleogeogr. Paleoclimatol. Paleoecol. Version: 1 199 (2-Jan) 141-151, issn: 0031-0182, ids: 727YA, doi: 10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00501-7
  • Gilbert, HJ, AF Sheehan, KG Dueker and P Molnar (2003), Receiver functions in the western United States, with implications for upper mantle structure and dynamics. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 108 (B5) , Art. No. 2229, issn: 2169-9313, ids: 678KB, doi: 10.1029/2001JB001194
  • Scherwath, M, T Stern, A Melhuish and P Molnar (2002), Pn anisotropy and distributed upper mantle deformation associated with a continental transform fault. Geophys. Res. Lett. Version: 1 29 (8) , Art. No. 1175, issn: 0094-8276, ids: 609DF, doi: 10.1029/2001GL014179
  • Brown, ET, R Bendick, DL Bourles, V Gaur, P Molnar, GM Raisbeck and F Yiou (2002), Slip rates of the Karakorum fault, Ladakh, India, determined using cosmic ray exposure dating of debris flows and moraines. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth Version: 1 107 (B9) , Art. No. 2192, issn: 0148-0227, ids: 634WU, doi: 10.1029/2000JB000100
  • Molnar, P and MA Cane (2002), El Nino's tropical climate and teleconnections as a blueprint for pre-Ice Age climates. Paleoceanography Version: 1 17 (2) , Art. No. 1021, issn: 0883-8305, ids: 610BE, doi: 10.1029/2001PA000663
  • Molnar, P (2001), Climate change, flooding in arid environments, and erosion rates. Geology Version: 1 29 (12) 1071-1074, issn: 0016-8505, ids: 501DG, doi: 10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<1071:CCFIAE>2.0.CO;2
  • Cane, MA and P Molnar (2001), Closing of the Indonesian seaway as a precursor to east African aridircation around 3-4 million years ago. Nature Version: 1 411 (6834) 157-162, issn: 0028-0836, ids: 430FC, doi: 10.1038/35075500, PubMed ID: 11346785
  • Zhang, PZ, P Molnar and WR Downs (2001), Increased sedimentation rates and grain sizes 2-4 Myr ago due to the influence of climate change on erosion rates. Nature Version: 1 410 (6831) 891-897, issn: 0028-0836, ids: 423AG
  • Molnar, P and KA Emanuel (1999), Temperature profiles in radiative-convective equilibrium above surfaces at different heights. J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. Version: 1 104 (D20) 24265-24271, issn: 2169-897X, ids: 249KN, doi: 10.1029/1999JD900485