Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences



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Measurements of emissions from agricultural fires and wildfires in the U.S

Measurements of emissions from agricultural fires and wildfires in the U.S

ANALYTICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY DIVISION and
ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY PROGRAM SEMINAR

Jointly sponsored by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, CIRES, and the Environmental Program
Dr. Xiaoxi Liu, Postdoctoral Fellow
University of Colorado, Boulder

and

Atmospheric chemistry of aliphatic amines: reaction mechanisms and temperature effects
Dr. Derek Price, Postdoctoral Fellow
University of Colorado, Boulder

Abstract (Dr. Liu):

"Biomass burning (BB) produces significant amounts of trace gases and aerosol, which play important roles in atmospheric chemistry and climate. This study presents detailed airborne measurements of emissions from 15 agricultural fires and 3 wildfires in the U.S. during the 2013 Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) and the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP). A detailed set of emission factors (EFs) for 25 trace gases and 6 components of submicron particulate matter (PM1) was reported for the agricultural fires located in the southeastern U.S. Observed EFs are generally consistent with previous measurements of crop residue burning, but the fires studied here emitted high amounts of oxygenated volatile organic compounds, sulfur dioxide, and fine particles. Filter-based measurements of aerosol light absorption implied that brown carbon was ubiquitous in the plumes. The rapid chemical evolution of the primary emissions in 7 out of 15 agricultural plumes was examined in detail for ~1.2 hr. A Lagrangian plume cross-section model was used to simulate the evolution of ozone, reactive nitrogen species, and organic aerosol (OA). For the western wildfires, we measured an extensive set of EFs for over 80 gases and 5 PM1 species. The wildfires emitted high amounts of PM1 (in which OA comprised most of the mass) with an average EF that is over two times of prescribed fire EFs. The EFs were used to estimate the annual regional emissions from agricultural fires and wildfires for CO, NOx, total non-methane organic compounds, and PM1. Our wildfire PM1 emission estimate from 11 western states is over three times that of the 2011 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) PM2.5 estimate, mainly due to our high EF(PM1), and also higher than the PM2.5 emitted from all other sources in these states according to NEI. This supports the practice of prescribed burning that could reduce fine particle emissions."

Abstract (Dr. Price):
"Aliphatic amines come from both anthropogenic and biogenic sources, including agricultural/livestock emissions and biomass burning. Radical oxidation of aliphatic amines can produce organic aerosol as well as aminium salt aerosol. The extent to which organic/aminium-salt aerosol is formed is dependent on the type of radical and precursor amine. Temperature has an important impact on SOA formation from aliphatic amines. Temperature variations can occur both seasonally and through vertical mixing in the atmosphere. In this presentation, I will discuss (1) the reaction pathways identified in smog chamber studies of hydroxyl and nitrate radical oxidation of aliphatic amines through comparison of mass spectra from both aerosol (HR-ToF-AMS and PILS-ToF-MS) and gas phase (SIFT-MS) instrumentation, and (2) the effects of temperature changes on the system."

 

date

Monday, April 3, 2017
12:00pm to 1:00pm

location

Ekeley S274

Event Type

Seminar
2017-04-03
 
 
Cryospheric and Polar Processes Seminar

Cryospheric and Polar Processes Seminar

"The Influence of the Arctic Frontal Zone on Summer Cyclone Activity Today and in the Future"

Abstract:
The Arctic frontal zone (AFZ) is a narrow band of strong horizontal temperature gradients that develops along the Arctic Ocean coastline in summer in response to differential heating of the atmosphere over adjacent land and ocean surfaces. Past research has linked baroclinicity within the AFZ to summer Arctic cyclone development, especially by intensifying storms that migrate northward from the Eurasian continent. This study uses the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble and an advanced cyclone detection and tracking algorithm to assess how the AFZ, Arctic cyclone activity, and the relationship between them respond to a global warming scenario. Under a strong warming scenario, the AFZ remains a significant cyclone intensifier, and changes to the AFZ are largely restricted to June. Earlier snow melt leads to strengthening of the AFZ in June, and this strengthening is accompanied by enhanced cyclogenesis along the east Siberian coast, but no change is observed for overall cyclone frequency and intensity in the Arctic. However, simultaneous changes to sub-polar storm tracks impact Arctic cyclone activity in all summer months, sometimes in opposition to the impact of the summer AFZ.

date

Wednesday, April 5, 2017
11:00am

location

East Campus, RL-2, room 155

Event Type

Seminar
2017-04-05
 
Engaged Scientist Series: Science is Culture

Engaged Scientist Series: Science is Culture

Science is Culture:  Understanding Power & Privilege in Community-based Research

As communities increasingly grapple with problems of resiliency and environmental health and safety, scientists who are equipped to help are needed. The Engaged Scientist project is a series of free public talks and associated workshops for graduate students and postdoctoral researchers. These events aim to equip scientists with community engagement skills.

The final event in the Engaged Scientist Series is on April 6, 2017. A public lecture will be presented in the CIRES Auditorium (CIRES Main, 338) and a workshop for graduate students and postdocs will be held in the CIRES Fellows Room (Eckeley, S274) from 5:30 to 8:30 p.m. on the CU Boulder main campus.

Scientists often work in and with communities whether working on research, promoting findings especially in the fields of resiliency, environment and sustainability.

Michelle Gabrieloff-Parish, Energy & Climate Justice Program Manager at the CU Boulder Environmental Center, and Heidi McCann, Associate Scientist at the National Snow and Ice Data Center, will give a public lecture and then co-lead a workshop with Susan Sullivan, Director of CIRES Education and Outreach.

The workshop examines the scientific worldview lens and explores best practices for working with communities, including developing inter-cultural awareness, conducting research so that communities benefit, and understanding the value of local communities (including disenfranchised communities) and “informal” knowledge.  

During this workshop we will:

Look at relevant, mini case-studies 
Look at cultural communication and behavior patterns
Work through equity and justice dilemmas for community-engaged research 
Discuss how to initiate and strengthen community partnerships

“This generation of researchers is more interested than ever in working with communities,” said Susan Sullivan, director of CIRES Education and Outreach. “Given new University investments in science communication and in demonstrating research impact, the time is right to support those interests and provide models for doing it effectively."

Lecture registration (optional)

Workshop registration (required)

Visit the Engaged Scientist project page for details about all events in the series.

The Engaged Scientist series is coordinated by CU's new Albert A. Bartlett Center for Science Communication, CIRES Education and Outreach, INSTAAR, and Learn More About Climate at the Office for Outreach and Engagement.

date

Thursday, April 6, 2017
4:00pm to 8:00pm

location

CIRES Auditorium - Lecture; CIRES Fellows Room - Workshop

contact

Jennifer Taylor
2017-04-06
 
Lunch with CIRES Distinguished Lecturer - Roger S. Pulwarty

Lunch with CIRES Distinguished Lecturer - Roger S. Pulwarty

This is a chance for CGA members to talk with the CIRES Distinguished Lecturer, Roger S. Pulwarty over lunch. Dr. Pulwarty is the Senior Science Advisor for Climate Research at the NOAA Climate Program and the Physical Sciences Division in Boulder, Colorado. Roger’s publications focus on climate extremes and adaptation in the U.S., Latin America and the Caribbean.

date

Friday, April 7, 2017
12:00pm to 1:00pm

resources

Event Type

CGA
2017-04-07
 
Distinguished Lecture Series: Dr. Roger S. Pulwarty

Distinguished Lecture Series: Dr. Roger S. Pulwarty

Title: "Slow onsets, abrupt changes, and fast reflexes: Research on adaptation in a changing world"

Abstract: Adaptation is higher than ever before on the global agenda. Countries, communities and businesses are demanding access to authoritative, usable science and risk assessment information for making both near and long-term decisions in the face of changing weather and climate trends and extremes. Scientific advances over the past few decades have led to an improved understanding of drivers and precursors of a changing climate, and of social, environmental, and economic thresholds and impacts. The modern world is also significantly more connected and technologically advanced than when the first IPCC assessment was conducted.  An oft-articulated observation is that an increase in integrated knowledge about environment-society interactions will result in improvements in the quality of public and private decisions-a decidedly idealized view. Much recent work has shown that this expectation is most difficult to meet when decision stakes are high, uncertainty is great, technologies are new, experience and engagement are limited, and there are unequal distributions of burdens and benefits. How these factors facilitate or impede efficient and equitable adaptation depends on historical but ingrained pathways, and financial and technical constraints and opportunities, among others. As essential as the urgency for assessing the causes and impacts of climate extremes and trends, is the critical need to avoid a false image of risks being faced (e.g. spurious certitude on local manifestations of change) and the attendant underestimation of the complexities of adaptation. The gap between conceptual feasibility and practical implementation to meet multiple and emerging goals remains immense. Key guiding questions, include “How often should we revise our assumptions about the direction and magnitude of changes?” “Where are the barriers to coordinated decision-making in different contexts, and how might they be overcome?” and “How can the diversity of research-based knowledge and input to problem-solving be best managed, as events unfold?” This lecture, drawing on the author’s research and experience in efforts to address such questions, outlines, (1) existing and projected risks, including lessons from significant events, across the globe, (2) options, challenges and opportunities for implementing adaptation strategies in different sectors and countries, (3) regional and local climate information systems that share research, decision support tools and smart practices, and (4) the coordination and capacity needed for securing the co-benefits of weather and climate risk management across economies, ecosystems and communities. Added to this, are the professional risks assumed when undertaking interdisciplinary research aimed at addressing such questions.

Bio: Roger S. Pulwarty is the Senior Science Advisor for Climate Research at the NOAA Climate Program and the Physical Sciences Division in Boulder, Colorado. Roger’s publications focus on climate extremes and adaptation in the U.S., Latin America and the Caribbean. Throughout his career, Roger has helped design and lead, widely-recognized end-to-end programs focused on climate, impacts, and services, including the Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessments, the National Integrated Drought Information System, and the first major adaptation program of the Global Environment Fund, on Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change in the Caribbean. Roger is a lead author on the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction global assessments, the IPCC Special Reports on Water Resources and on Extremes, and a convening lead author on the IPCC Working Group II Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability.  He has provided testimonies before the U.S. Congress, and has served on Presidential task forces focused on the water-energy-food nexus, and on national security. Roger acts as an advisor on climate risk management to a number of national and international agencies, including the Western Governors, the Organization of American States, the International Federation of Red Cross/Red Crescent, the OECD, UNDP, and the InterAmerican and the World Banks. He is the chair of the WMO Climate Services Information System, a key pillar of the Global Framework on Climate Services, and a member of the Global Climate Observing System Steering Committee.  Roger’s work on integrating scientific research into decision-making has been awarded by NOAA, the U.S. Department of Commerce, and by the Gold Medal for Excellence in Applied Sciences and Technology from the Government of Trinidad and Tobago and the Caribbean Academy of Sciences. Most recently, he was the keynote at the Adaptation Futures Conference, the largest gathering of adaptation researchers and practitioners in in the world, and received the 2016 AGU Gilbert F. White Award and Distinguished Lecture. Roger is the co-editor of “Hurricanes: Climate and Socio-Economic Impacts” (Springer, re-issued in paperback in 2012), and the forthcoming “Drought and Water Crises” (CRC Press, 2017).

date

Friday, April 7, 2017
4:00pm

location

CIRES Auditorium, Room 338

resources

Event Type

DLS

Amenities

Refreshments provided

2017-04-07
 
 
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North American pollution measurements from geostationary orbit with Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

North American pollution measurements from geostationary orbit with Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

Jointly sponsored by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, CIRES, and the Environmental Program

Dr. Kelly Chance, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics

Abstract:
"TEMPO is the first NASA Earth Venture Instrument. It launches between 2019 and 2021 to measure atmospheric pollution from Mexico City and Cuba to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific. It does this hourly at high spatial resolution, ~10 km 2 , to measure the key elements of air pollution chemistry. Geostationary daytime measurements capture the variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry at sub-urban scale to improve emission inventories, monitor population exposure, and enable emission-control strategies. TEMPO measures UV/visible Earth reflectance spectra to retrieve O 3 , NO 2 , SO 2 , H 2 CO, C 2 H 2 O 2 , H 2 O, BrO, OClO, IO, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. It tracks aerosol loading. It provides near-real- time air quality products. TEMPO is the North American component of upcoming the global geostationary constellation for pollution monitoring, together with the European Sentinel-4 and the Korean Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS). TEMPO science studies may include: Solar-induced fluorescence from chlorophyll over land and in the ocean to study tropical dynamics, primary productivity and carbon uptake, to detect red tides, and to study phytoplankton; measurements of stratospheric intrusions that cause air quality exceedances; measurements at peaks in vehicle travel to capture the variability in emissions from mobile sources; measurements of thunderstorm activity, including outflow regions to better quantify lightning NO x and O 3 production; cropland measurements to follow the temporal evolution of emissions after fertilizer application and from rain-induced emissions from semi-arid soils; investigating the chemical processing of primary fire emissions and the secondary formation of VOCs and ozone; examining ocean halogen emissions and their impact on the oxidizing capacity of coastal environments; measuring spectra of nighttime lights as markers for human activity, energy conservation, and compliance with outdoor lighting standards intended to reduce light pollution."

date

Monday, April 10, 2017
12:00pm to 1:00pm

location

Ekeley S274
2017-04-10
 
April 2017 CMC Meeting

April 2017 CMC Meeting

April CMC Meeting! Everyone is welcome!

date

Monday, April 10, 2017
12:00pm to 2:00pm

location

Amenities

Lunch provided

2017-04-10
 
 
Job Mentoring Mashup: Outside Academia

Job Mentoring Mashup: Outside Academia

These are some of the benefits you may gain:
Obtain career guidance from scientists in the private, non-profit, and federal/state job sectors
Networking
Collaborations
Personal development
The event will be split into 2 one-hour blocks. Mentors from different employment sectors will be available for one or both time slots and will rotate between tables of CGA members so that you can get the most out of your experience.

When: Wednesday, April 12th, 2017, 5:00-7:00 pm
Where: Backcountry Pizza (2319 Arapahoe Avenue)
Who: Claudia Capitini, Maven Consulting
Burke Minsley, US Geological Survey
Ken Nowak, Bureau of Reclamation
Stuart Cohen, National Energy Renewable Lab
Todd Sanford, Climate Central
Scott Jackson, Environmental Protection Agency
David Hulslander, National Ecological Observatory Network
Andrea Ray, NOAA Earth System Research Lab,

date

Wednesday, April 12, 2017
5:00pm to 7:00pm

Event Type

CGA
2017-04-12
 
CSTPR Noontime Seminar

CSTPR Noontime Seminar

Renewable Energy in Africa: Findings from the Social Sciences

by Kathleen Hancock
Colorado School of Mines

Abstract: Despite being blessed with energy resource abundance, sub-Saharan African states face numerous energy challenges, including low rates of access to electricity, decaying infrastructure, cook stoves that shorten lives, and reliance on wood that leads to deforestation. High rates of corruption, low levels of democracy, and geographically large states with primarily rural communities further complicate these challenges. Meanwhile, new oil and gas finds are enriching some states. However, developing these fields will increase greenhouse gas emissions, and there is substantial evidence that petroleum goes hand-in-hand with corruption, authoritarianism, gender and economic inequality, the so-called “resource curse.” As a result, many political leaders and communities favor growth through renewable energy rather than fossil fuels. With this in mind, social scientists have turned their attention to figuring out which programs work, and which do not, thus enabling Africa to leapfrog petroleum-fueled growth and go straight to clean energy-fueled growth. In this talk, I summarize some of the major findings from research in Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, Zambia, and the West African region. Research topics include mini-grids, solar energy centers, gender and energy, the role of PhD programs in Africa, carbon finance, and mega hydroelectric dams. While the findings come from research in and on Africa, many of the lessons apply more broadly. The talk concludes with a discussion of opportunities for further research and overcoming research challenges in the field.

Kathleen J. Hancock (PhD, University of California, San Diego) is Associate Professor at the Colorado School of Mines, where she is the Director of the soon-to-be launched Global, Energy, and Policy Studies Program and of the Masters program on natural resources policy and the co-Director of the Energy Minor. Her current book project develops a theory on the politics of renewable energy, with case studies on Germany, Brazil, South Africa, and the state of Colorado. She is co-editing the first Oxford Handbook on Energy Politics. Her recently published work focuses on the intersection of regionalism and energy issues, particularly renewable energy in Africa. She is the editor of and contributor to a 2015 special issue on renewable energy in Africa, published in the journal Energy Research & Social Science. She has papers under review and working papers on the regional electricity grid and markets in West Africa, the potential “curse” of hydroelectric dams, and the political foundations of the ECOWAS Renewable Energy & Energy Efficiency Center. Before working on Africa and renewable energy, Dr. Hancock analyzed regionalism in Eurasia. In her book Regional Integration: Choosing Plutocracy, she develops a theory on how great powers economically integrate the states in their regions. She has published articles in journals such as International Studies Perspective, Foreign Policy Analysis, Asian Perspective, and China and Eurasia Forum and book chapters on energy security in the developing world, Eurasian economic integration, and African economic trade. In 2015-16, she was a senior scholar at the Free University-Berlin. Her work has been funded by the German foundation Fritz Thyssen Stiftung, International Studies Association, Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation/MacArthur Fellowship, the Institute for International Education, and the Institute for Security and Development Policy. She is on the editorial board for Energy Research & Social Science; coordinates an international group of scholars and practitioners working on the international political economy of resources and energy; and has been the principal investigator for five workshops on the international political economy of energy and natural resources. She has also published on gender issues the international relations discipline and is working with colleague on gender and scholarship in the computer science field. Prior to earning her PhD, Dr. Hancock worked in Washington, DC for 10 years during which time she earned a Masters in Science, Technology, and Public Policy, was a lobbyist for the Federation of American Scientists, and was a senior analyst with the Government Accountability Office in the National Security and International Affairs Division.

date

Wednesday, April 12, 2017
12:00pm to 1:00pm

location

CSTPR Conference Room

Event Type

CSTPR
2017-04-12
 
Cryospheric and Polar Processes Seminar

Cryospheric and Polar Processes Seminar

Dr. Sebastian Schmidt
University of Colorado


Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics and Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences

Title: “Understanding the atmospheric drivers of Arctic sea ice variability – the role of past and future aircraft experiments”

Abstract:

This seminar will explore how aircraft observations can be used to study atmosphere-radiation-surface interactions in the Arctic. Although shortcomings in model predictions of sea ice and atmospheric parameters play out on different spatial and temporal scales, they cannot be addressed separately because the atmosphere and the surface interact through different mechanisms that depend on region, season, and prevalent synoptic regimes. One can argue that this is precisely the challenge for future Arctic experiments. Aircraft observations are not the immediately obvious choice for studying complicated interaction processes, especially when these manifest themselves on variegated scales or magnitudes. Fortunately, we have learned a lot from recent radiation science experiments where aircraft observations were synthesized with ground-based and satellite data within a modeling framework. When integrated in such a way, airborne measurements turn out to be a key component in an observational strategy that can access interaction processes with adequate detail. I will give examples of this emerging trend, discuss some of the lessons learned, and touch on new capabilities. Building on these, I will motivate a new experiment initiative with science questions that link Arctic clouds, atmospheric structure, surface conditions, radiation and precipitation. A central goal is to diagnose (and ultimately improve) the ability of different models to trace Arctic clouds throughout their lifetime in a way that is consistent with merged airborne, surface, and satellite observations. I will present an evolving strategy for capturing the various scale-dependent interaction processes with observational approaches inherited from prior experiments, and invite the audience to join in the discussion of the most relevant science questions.

Please contact Mistia Zuckerman at mistia.zuckerman@colorado.edu if you have any questions

date

Wednesday, April 12, 2017
11:00am

location

East Campus, RL-2, room 155

Event Type

Seminar
2017-04-12
 
 
 
 
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Products and yields from the gas-phase oxidation of benzenediols

Products and yields from the gas-phase oxidation of benzenediols

Zachary Finewax, ANYL 3rd Year Student,
University of Colorado, Boulder

Jointly sponsored by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, CIRES, and the Environmental Program

Abstract:
Biomass burning (i.e. wildfires, prescribed burns) emits significant amounts of organic carbon to the atmosphere. However, the secondary processing of these emissions is poorly understood. In this work, catechol and resorcinol (1,2-benzenediol and 1,3-benzenediol, respectively) were reacted with hydroxyl radical (OH) in the presence of NOx, or with nitrate radical (NO3) in an environmental chamber. These compounds were previously identified and quantified as significant emissions from biomass burning. Both benzenediol isomers produced a significant quantity of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) after reaction with OH or NO3. 4-nitrocatechol was identified as the dominant product in the SOA from catechol oxidation by both OH and NO3, whereas the product distribution from resorcinol oxidation included benzenetriols, nitroaromatics, and hydroxybenzoquinones. Formation mechanisms of these products are discussed.

date

Monday, April 17, 2017
12:00pm to 1:00pm

location

Ekeley S274

Event Type

Seminar
2017-04-17
 
 
Cryospheric and Polar Processes Seminar

Cryospheric and Polar Processes Seminar

Abigail Ahlert and Dr. Alexandra Jahn

University of Colorado Boulder


INSTAAR and ATOC

 

Title: Definitions Matter: Arctic Sea Ice Melt and Freeze Onset

Abstract:

Climate models in CMIP3 and CMIP5 show a large spread in their simulated Arctic sea ice cover, with large mean biases of sea ice cover in many models. One contributing factor could be that simulated melt season lengths are too short or too long. However, there are multiple possible physical definitions for sea ice melt and freeze onset in climate models, and none of them exactly correspond to the brightness temperature-based melt and freeze onset definitions used for satellite retrievals. This makes the comparison of climate model output to satellite data challenging, as different definitions can bracket the satellite derived melt season dates. To assess the influence of various melt and freeze onset definitions, we compare data from the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble (available for 1920-2100) to passive microwave-derived melt onset/freeze-up dates (available for 1979-2014). Melt onset definitions for the Large Ensemble are derived from thermodynamic volume tendency, surface temperature and snowmelt, while freeze onset definitions are derived from thermodynamic volume tendency, surface temperature, frazil ice growth, and congelation ice growth. By determining how the modeled melt and freeze onset vary based on different definitions within the model, we gain insight to the interannual, spatial and internal variability of melt and freeze onset dates. This allows us to better assess the level of agreement with the satellite-derived melt and freeze onset dates, and to highlight the challenges in identifying model biases through model-to-satellite comparisons. This analysis will be useful in the upcoming assessment of CMIP6 simulations for melt season biases and can inform sea ice predictability studies that make use of the spring-time melt onset for the predictability of ice advance.

Please contact the CIRES Message Center at NSIDC if there are questions. Msgcnter@nsidc.org or 303-492-8028

date

Wednesday, April 19, 2017
11:00am

Event Type

Seminar
2017-04-19
 
 
Publishing with Nature journals

Publishing with Nature journals

Publishing with Nature Climate ChangeNature Energy, and the Nature family, and gaining insight into the editorial process. A special seminar by Jennifer Richler, Senior Editor, Nature Climate Change and Nature Energy. Friday April 21, 11 am, Ekeley S274. This event is sponsored by the CU Boulder Environmental Studies Program and hosted by CIRES. Webinar will not be available.

date

Friday, April 21, 2017
11:00am

location

Ekeley S274
2017-04-21
 
 
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Turning brown in the sun: Aldehydes, aqueous aerosol, and evaporating cloud droplets

Turning brown in the sun: Aldehydes, aqueous aerosol, and evaporating cloud droplets

ANALYTICAL & ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY DIVISION and
ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY PROGRAM SEMINAR

Jointly sponsored by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, CIRES, and the Environmental Program

Turning brown in the sun: Aldehydes, aqueous aerosol, and evaporating cloud droplets

Prof. David De Haan
University of San Diego

"Much of what we think we know about aqueous aerosol chemistry – reaction rates, products, mechanisms, and photolytic pathways – comes from extrapolating bulk aqueous-phase lab simulations to atmospheric conditions. Based on this approach, it is now commonly assumed that small, water-soluble aldehydes can react at night with ammonium salts to slowly form light-absorbing brown carbon (BrC). These BrC products are thought to be quickly destroyed by sunlight. When aqueous aerosol processes are studied in aqueous aerosol particles, however, this common narrative turns out to be only partially true. In this talk, results will be presented from recent chamber studies on ammonium and amine-containing aerosol particles as they interact with aldehyde species, solar simulator lamps, and clouds. In some cases, sunlight actually accelerates BrC formation during cloud processing. Chemical analysis of the aerosol produced in these experiments suggests that mechanisms initiated by photolytically-produced radical species are the dominant source of oligomers, and by extension, of BrC."

date

Monday, April 24, 2017
12:00pm to 1:00pm

location

Ekeley S274

Event Type

Seminar
2017-04-24
 
 
CSTPR Noontime Seminar

CSTPR Noontime Seminar

Anticipating Disaster: Local Dependence on Formal Climate Information vs. Traditional Ways of Knowing

by Sierra Gladfelter
Geography Department, University of Colorado Boulder

Abstract: Rural Zambian communities living on the floodplains of the Zambezi River increasingly suffer from climate-induced disasters, with both floods and droughts alternatively striking and eroding their security. In 2009, Thurlow et al. estimated that residents across southern Zambia face a 75-80% chance of experiencing either a severe drought or flood in any given year. In spite of these predictions, communities here receive limited support in terms of advanced forecasts and early warnings that might enable them to better prepare for disasters. As a result, many residents continue to rely on traditional ways of anticipating and adapting to floods and droughts in order to secure their families and livelihoods. This presentation is based on qualitative data collected as part of the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre internship in rural communities of Kazungula District, in Southern Province of Zambia during the summer of 2016. The goals of this study were to document current barriers that communities face both in coping with and adapting to climate-induced disasters and to identify potential culturally-appropriate and feasible mechanisms to improve access to early warnings and enhance preparedness. I argue that while profound barriers restrict the dissemination of formal forecasts at the national level, there are significant opportunities to leverage information already available on the ground by using informal communication structures to provide early warnings at the village level. This research speaks to broader efforts to develop low-tech, climate adaptive strategies to support vulnerable communities in coping with the effects of climate change not only in Zambia but across the developing world.

Biography: Sierra Gladfelter is currently completing a Master’s degree in geography and a certificate in development studies at the University of Colorado at Boulder. Broadly, her research interests include the politics of knowledge, vulnerability, and social justice that surround climate adaptation and disaster mitigation programs across the developing world. Particularly drawn to South Asia and the Himalayan region since studying abroad with the School for International Training in Kathmandu, Nepal in 2011, Sierra’s Master’s thesis examined a set of interventions to mitigate the impacts of flooding in island communities along the Karnali River in southwestern Nepal. Recently awarded a Fulbright-Nehru student research award in India, Sierra is excited to continue her work both critically and productively engaging development and humanitarian interventions to assist communities in coping with chronic floods and droughts in order to more actively integrate local knowledge and priorities into the design and implementation of such solutions. Sierra also has applied experience outside of academia studying climate change, resilience and the uneven process of recovery from climate-induced disasters along rivers in Zambia and the United States with the Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre and the Institute for Social and Environmental Transition-International.

date

Wednesday, April 26, 2017
12:00pm to 1:00pm

location

CSTPR Conference Room

resources

Event Type

CSTPR
2017-04-26
 
 
Celebrating Finland's Centennial: What Makes Finland Great for Education, Research & Innovation

Celebrating Finland's Centennial: What Makes Finland Great for Education, Research & Innovation

Kirsti Kauppi became Ambassador of Finland to the United States in September 2015. Prior (2012-2015), she was Political Director at the Ministry for Foreign Affairs in Helsinki. Kauppi has over 30 years of experience in foreign service including service in Finland's EU mission in Brussels and Finnish Embassies in Vienna, Berlin and Bangkok. In addition to her native Finnish, Kauppi is fluent in English, Swedish, German and French. This event is open to the public, but registration is requested because space is limited. Ms. Kauppi's visit and lecture are sponsored by the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES), Vaisala, Finlandia Foundation of Colorado (FCC) and Colorado European Union Center of Excellence (CEUCE).

date

Friday, April 28, 2017
3:00pm

location

CIRES Auditorium
2017-04-28
 
 
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