Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences



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CIRES Members Council Meeting

CIRES Members Council Meeting

Agenda:

  • Ratification of CMC By-Laws
  • Supervisor Review Update
  • OPA Guidelines Update
  • Rendezvous Committee Update
  • OPA Committee Update

date

Tuesday, January 17, 2017
12:00pm to 2:00pm

location

Amenities

Lunch provided

2017-01-17
 
 
 
 
 
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Analytical Chemistry Seminar

Analytical Chemistry Seminar

Analytical & Environmental Chemistry Division and Atmospheric Chemistry Program Seminar

Jointly sponsored by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, CIRES, and the Environmental Program

UV Photochemistry of Carboxylic Acids at the Air-Sea Boundary: A Relevant Source of Glyoxal and other OVOC in the Marine Atmosphere

by Randall Chiu - Analytical division 3rd year student, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and CIRES; University of Colorado Boulder

Photochemistry plays an important role in marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) degradation, but the mechanisms that convert DOC into volatile organic compounds (VOCs) remain poorly understood. We irradiated carboxylic acids (C7-C9) on a simulated ocean surface with UV light (<320 nm) in a photochemical flow reactor, and transferred the VOC products into a dark ozone reactor. Glyoxal was detected as a secondary product from heptanoic, octanoic, and NA films, but not from octanol. Primary glyoxal emissions were not observed, nor was glyoxal formed in the absence of ozone. Addition of a photosensitizer had no noticeable effect. The concurrent detection of heptanal in the NA system suggests that the ozonolysis of 2-nonenal is the primary chemical mechanism that produces glyoxal. This source can potentially sustain few 10 pptv glyoxal over oceans, and helps to explain why glyoxal fluxes in marine air are directed from the atmosphere into the ocean.

date

Monday, January 23, 2017
12:00pm to 1:00pm

location

CIRES Fellows Room, Ekeley S274
2017-01-23
 
 
CSTPR Noontime Seminar

CSTPR Noontime Seminar

Supraregulatory Agreements and Public Perceptions of Unconventional Energy Development in Colorado

by Jessica Smith
Liberal Arts and International Studies, Colorado School of Mines

In the fight between state versus local control in Colorado’s unconventional energy industry, Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) signed directly between operators and local governments are becoming an increasingly popular strategy for formally integrating citizen concerns into oil and gas development. Yet little is known about how these agreements may shape public opinion of industry and local government. Using mixed methods, we investigate if and how MOUs shaped public perceptions of the industry and the town government in Erie, a politically heterogeneous suburban Colorado town home to the state’s first MOU. While public comments have become significantly more favorable toward oil and gas development over time, our research reveals that the MOU itself did not significantly change those perceptions. The more significant factor was the election of a town board committed to processes of engagement and transparency, including a meaningful revision of the original MOU.

Jessica Smith is Co-Director of Humanitarian Engineering and Assistant Professor at the Colorado School of Mines. As an anthropologist, her research interests focus around the mining and energy industries, with particular emphasis in corporate social responsibility, engineers, labor and gender. She is the author of Mining Coal and Undermining Gender: Rhythms of Work and Family in the American West, which was funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the National Science Foundation. She is currently investigating the intersections between engineering and CSR on the NSF grant “The Ethics of Extraction: Integrating Corporate Social Responsibility into Engineering Education.” She also serves as the social science research lead of the ConocoPhillips Center for a Sustainable WE2ST, dedicated to understanding and promoting the joint sustainability of water and unconventional energy resources.

date

Wednesday, January 25, 2017
12:00pm to 1:00pm

location

CSTPR Conference Room

resources

Event Type

CSTPR
2017-01-25
 
 
Distinguished Lecture Series: Dr. Richard J. Johnson

Distinguished Lecture Series: Dr. Richard J. Johnson

Title: “Climate Change and the Evolution of Humans”

Abstract: One of the key survival mechanisms animals use is to store fat and water during times of food and water shortage. While some animals will physically store food and water in food caches, others have learned how to store fat and glycogen, often with a reduction in energy metabolism and the development of insulin resistance (that maintains high glucose levels in the blood to provide fuel to the brain). Work led by Dr Miguel Lanaspa and myself have identified a pathway in purine metabolism that appears to activate this energy conservation pathway. One of the key factors is uric acid, a purine breakdown product. In this regard, humans have higher serum uric acid than most mammals due to a mutation that occurred 15 million years ago in the mid Miocene. The mid-Miocene was an interesting time in human evolution. In the early Miocene the first apes appeared in Africa, and they were mainly fruit eating and lived in the trees. During the early Miocene there was more or less an “Eden” for these apes, and multiple species developed over several million years. Around 18 million years ago, global cooling began, leading to the development of polar ice caps and a fall in sea levels, and a landbridge developed between Africa and Eurasia. During this time numerous species crossed into Eurasia, including ancestral apes. Initially the apes could live in the same manner as in Africa, but as cooling continued there was a change in the forests in Europe with the development of savannas and seasonal changes in temperature, and fruit, which had been available year-round in Africa, was no longer available during the cooler months. There is evidence that there was progressive starvation with eventual extinction of the European apes by 8 million years ago. However, work by Dr Peter Andrews at the Natural History Museum in London, as well as others, showed that by the fossil record, current great apes and humans are derived from the European and not African apes, implying that some must have migrated back to Africa prior to their extinction in Europe. Here we piece together a mutation in uric acid metabolism that we have proposed likely occurred in Europe as a survival advantage for apes living there, as the mutation could enhance the ability of the apes to store fat and survive during the period of progressive starvation. This same mutation can be shown to markedly amplify the effect of fructose to increase fat stores. While this was a survival advantage for early apes, with the introduction of table sugar (fructose/glucose), the mutation markedly enhanced our ability to become fat, and can be shown to have a role in the current diabetes and obesity epidemic. This case example shows how climate change increased our risk for obesity , diabetes and kidney disease today, how it is being compounded by ongoing increases in temperature , and how , equipped with the knowledge we have gleaned, we can directly intervene to not only help our species, but other species whose survival is being challenged by changes in the environment.

Bio: Richard J. Johnson, M.D. is the Tomas Berl Professor of Medicine and the Chief of the Renal Division and Hypertension at the University of Colorado since 2008. He is a highly cited scientist who has lectured in over 40 countries, has authored two books sugar (The Sugar Fix  (2008) and the The Fat Switch (2012),  and whose research has been funded by the National Institutes of Health. His primary research interest has been on mechanisms causing kidney disease, but he also has performed research on mechanisms causing obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.  He has special interest in the potential role of sugar (especially fructose) and its byproduct, uric acid in driving metabolic and kidney disorders. Most recently his work has shifted to how animals survive climate change, and for the potential role of heat stress and dehydration as a mechanism to cause chronic kidney disease. He also has an active clinical practices and enjoys patient care.

date

Friday, January 27, 2017
4:00pm

resources

Event Type

DLS

Amenities

Refreshments provided

2017-01-27
 
 
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Analytical Chemistry Seminar

Analytical Chemistry Seminar

Analytical & Environmental Chemistry Division and Atmospheric Chemistry Program Seminar

Jointly sponsored by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, CIRES, and the Environmental Program

Closing the loop on phase equilibrium: connecting fundamental volatility measurements of complex fluids with applications of headspace detection

by Megan Harries - Analytical division 3rd year student, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado Boulder

Almost all fluids that are useful to us are complex mixtures consisting of many components with differing properties. An understanding of the phase equilibrium of these fluids is essential to many scientific disciplines as well as industry. For example, knowledge gaps in this area affect applications ranging from the development of alternative fuels to the deployment of forensic methods based on vapor characterization. These applications depend on our ability to bridge the gap – governed by thermodynamics – between vapor and liquid composition. This is difficult for even a binary, but beyond a ternary mixture, it becomes a real hair-puller. To unite these two pieces of the complete picture, I am adapting two relatively new techniques: the advanced distillation curve (ADC) method for volatility measurement and PLOT-cryoadsorption for vapor sampling. A modification of the ADC method, in development, provides simultaneous determination of temperature, pressure, and the composition of both vapor and condensed phases of a fluid mixture, while PLOT-cryoadsorption provides the field-ready vapor analysis. I will present a preliminary study that demonstrates the method and our ability to reconcile the measurements with models. Finally, I will discuss two related projects demonstrating applications, one using ADC to evaluate two alternative fuels and the second demonstrating environmental applications of a field portable PLOT-cryoadsorption device.

date

Monday, January 30, 2017
12:00pm to 1:00pm

location

CIRES Fellows Room, Ekeley S274
2017-01-30