Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences



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Analytical Chemistry Seminar: Ryan Davis

Analytical Chemistry Seminar: Ryan Davis

Jointly sponsored by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, CIRES, and the Environmental Program

Novel Phase Transitions of Optically Levitated Microdroplets: Contacts and Glasses Relevant to the Atmosphere

Ryan Davis, University of Colorado

The phase state and water content of atmospheric particles influence the particle's size, optical properties and chemical reactivity with important but poorly constrained effects on air quality and climate.  One challenging problem is predicting the ambient conditions required to initiate a phase transformation of a particle from liquid to solid, particularly when consideration is given to multi-particle interactions as well as chemical composition of the liquid droplet.  One such example is the phenomenon of contact nucleation.  Presented here are the first direct observations of contact nucleation of crystalline ammonium sulfate using a recently developed long-working distance optical trap.  Insight is given to the mechanism behind contact nucleation.  The effect of amorphous or glassy phase states will also be discussed.

location

CIRES Fellows Room, Ekeley S274 1665 Central Campus Mall - 1665 Central Campus Mall, CIRES - University of Colorado
2014-03-03
 
Cryospheric and Polar Processes Seminar: Dr. Albert Chen

Cryospheric and Polar Processes Seminar: Dr. Albert Chen

InSAR Remote Sensing: Principles and Applications to Greenland and Alaska

Dr. Albert Chen, Department of Gephysics, Standford University

Abstract

Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a technique for forming images of the Earth using data acquired by a spaceborne or airborne radar instrument. The complex phase of InSAR images can be used to measure Earth surface topography and deformation, while the secondorder phase statistics (coherence) can be related to temporal surface change and subsurface structure. After a brief overview of InSAR principles, error sources, and uncertainties, we present two applications of InSAR to cryosphere geophysics. First, we examine the use of InSAR coherence for studying snow accumulation rate in the dry-snow zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

We show a method for correcting decorrelation effects due to ionospheric inhomogeneity. We pose the estimation of accumulation rate from InSAR data as a nonlinear inverse problem, and compare our results with in-situ observations. Second, we use InSAR phase to study active layer thickness in regions of permafrost in Northern Alaska. We relate seasonal thaw subsidence measured by InSAR to active layer thickness, and use InSAR time series analysis to mitigate the effects of atmospheric noise.

Bio

Albert C. Chen was born in Columbus, Ohio and grew up in New York and Michigan. He received the B.S.E. degree from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, in 2006. He also received the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 2008 and 2014, respectively. Currently, he is a postdoctoral scholar in the Department of Geophysics at Stanford University. Albert has also been an engineering intern with The Boeing Company and Visteon Corporation. His research interests range from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), remote sensing, radar instrument design, and signal processing to cryosphere and near-surface geophysics. He is a member of AGU and IEEE, and has also served as teaching assistant for undergraduate and graduate courses in signal and image processing.

2014-03-03
 
Special Seminar: My career in land remote sensing: from little to big analysis of satellite terrestrial information

Special Seminar: My career in land remote sensing: from little to big analysis of satellite terrestrial information

Dr. David Roy's research interests include the development of remote sensing and advanced computing methods to map and characterize terrestrial change, global Petabyte volume satellite data processing and visualization, and the causes and consequences of land cover and land use change.


He is co-chair of the USGS NASA Landsat Science Team, and a member of the NASA MODIS land, NASA Land-Cover/Land-Use Change, and the GOFC-GOLD Fire Implementation science teams. He is chair of the US Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) User Working Group (UWG) and a member of the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) UWG. He has led research grants that total more than $12 million as principal investigator and more than $11 million as a co-investigator. He has an h-index >30 and his research has been cited >7000 times.

David has a Ph.D. from the Department of Geography, Cambridge University U.K. (1994), an M.Sc. in Remote Sensing and Image Processing from the Department of Meteorology, University of Edinburgh (1988), and a B.Sc. in Geophysics from the Department of Environmental Science, University of Lancaster (1987). He held post-doctoral research fellowships at the U.K. Natural Environment Research Council Unit for Thematic Information Systems, University of Reading, and at the Space Applications Institute, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Italy. Before moving to South Dakota State University, where he is a professor in the Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, he was an associate research scientist in the Department of Geographical Sciences at the University of Maryland and led the MODIS Land Data Operational Product Evaluation group at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center for eight years.

Abstract: Dr. Roy will talk about his research, where it has come from, and where it is going with an emphasis on the generation of consistent global long-term satellite data records and prospects for near real-time land surface monitoring, the emerging relevance of the commercial sector, and the need for advocacy for space agency continuity of satellite environmental remote sensing systems.

2014-03-03
 
Cryospheric and Polar Processes Seminar: Mark Demitroff

Cryospheric and Polar Processes Seminar: Mark Demitroff

Late Pleistocene Periglacial Processes and the Origin of Pinelands Closed Basins

Mark Demitroff, Geography Department, University of Delaware

The concept of widespread permafrost and periglacial (cold, nonglacial) landforms in the Mid-Atlantic region has been controversial. Some have argued for a cool, moist Pleistocene realm, while others maintained that cold, dry, and windy conditions prevailed. This session will examine new evidence for deep seasonal frost, permafrost, and a polar desert-like environment in the Pinelands National Reserve of New Jersey. Frost cracks are commonplace. Thermokarst processes during permafrost thaw created a suite of structures that are abundantly expressed in local sand and gravel operations. Strong density-driven katabatic winds from a massive ice sheet sculpted surficial terrain through sand deposition and deflation. Closed basins, colloquially called spungs, are interpreted as blowouts. Cryogenic weathering of silicates, a process best developed in the active layer of permafrost regions, is represented in paleosols. Multiple episodes of past permafrost extended hundreds of kilometers south of the maximum limit of the continental ice sheet, and was at times continuous to Baltimore and Washington, DC.

location

RL-2 Room 155/153 - 1540 30th St.
2014-03-04
 
Special Seminar: Predicting Processes of Dynamic Deformation across the Ocean Surface Why did oil in the Gulf of Mexico do what it did?

Special Seminar: Predicting Processes of Dynamic Deformation across the Ocean Surface Why did oil in the Gulf of Mexico do what it did?

jacobs.jpgGregg Jacobs is head of the Naval Research Laboratory Ocean Dynamics and Prediction Branch, which is located at Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. The group is composed of 42 government and 35 contractor researchers working to enable ocean prediction. This encompasses understanding the basic physical ocean processes, developing numerical models on supercomputers and assimilating satellite and in situ observations daily. Gregg Jacobs completed his undergraduate degree in Aerospace Engineering at the University of Colorado in Boulder, his Master's degree in Physical Oceanography at Oregon State University in Corvallis and his PhD at the University of Colorado in Boulder studying planetary scale ocean Rossby waves from satellite altimeter data.


Abstract: Material deformation on the ocean surface is strongly governed by the underlying ocean dynamical processes ranging from mesoscale transport at O(100km), frontogenesis at O(10km), mixed layer instabilities at O(5km), submesoscale circulation at O(2km) and smaller features at O(500m) scale.  In addition to the deformation effects, understanding the predictability of processes across this spectrum is critical and requires observations from satellite to in situ. Numerical models at resolutions of 3km, 1km, 250m and 50m sequentially represent the smaller scale processes that lead to the material deformation. The mesoscale transport produces large scale movement of material and is dominated primarily by stretching deformation. Frontogenesis driven by ocean eddies results in dilation deformation. Mesoscale eddies and eddy-driven frontogenesis are shown to be predictable given sufficient satellite observations. Mixed layer instabilities increase both the dilation and stretch at the ocean surface, and submesoscale features add significantly more deformation. Smaller scale features in the 50m model results show an upscale cascade from the small scale accumulating material into clumps which then move into the downwelling areas associated with fronts driven by the general circulation and ocean eddies.

location

CIRES Auditorium - CIRES - University of Colorado
2014-03-05
 
Special Seminar: The ocean's role in polar climate change

Special Seminar: The ocean's role in polar climate change

armor.jpgKyle Armour is a James S. McDonnell Foundation Postdoctoral Fellow in the Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at MIT. He obtained his PhD in the Department of Physics at the University of Washington in 2012. His main research interests are in climate dynamics, including the general circulation of the atmosphere and oceans, sea ice, and climate change. His recent work has spanned a range of topics including atmospheric feedbacks and climate sensitivity, the role of the oceans in setting the timescales and geographic patterns of climate change and variability, and the climate implications of geoengineering with stratospheric aerosols. During his PhD, he studied the potential for reversibility in the loss of Arctic sea ice and worked to quantify our climate commitment–the amount of warming that would still occur absent any future greenhouse gas or aerosol emissions. He is the recipient of a 2011 'Studying Complex Systems' Postdoctoral Fellowship Award from the James S. McDonnell Foundation.


Abstract: The retreat of Arctic sea ice has been one of the most striking features of climate change in recent decades, with the summer sea ice cover decreasing by about 40% since the 1980s. Accompanying this sea ice loss has been amplified warming in the Arctic, at a rate several time faster than the global mean. In stark contrast, the Antarctic sea ice cover has been steadily increasing over this period, consistent with an overall cooling of the Southern Ocean sea surface from the sea ice edge out to the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (the ACC, where substantial warming has occurred). Here I argue that interhemispheric asymmetries in the large-scale ocean circulation play a fundamental role in driving such distinct polar climate trends under greenhouse gas forcing: wind-driven upwelling around Antarctica acts to delay warming at the sea surface, while Arctic warming is accelerated by enhanced poleward ocean heat transport. I further discuss: (i) the extent to which these changes are a consequence of the background ocean circulation versus changes in circulation driven by the active nature of ocean heat uptake; (ii) a possible mechanism for the observed warming within the ACC region; and (iii) the role of internal climate variability in the observed Southern Ocean cooling and sea ice expansion.

location

CIRES Auditorium - CIRES - University of Colorado
2014-03-06
 
 
 
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CMC Minutes March 10, 2014

CMC Minutes March 10, 2014

CMC Meeting  03/10/2013

 

Members present: Doug Fowler, Joe Olson, Gloria Hicks, Robin Strelow, Anne Perring, Rick Tisinai, Barry Eakins, Kiki Holl, Deann Miller

Visitors: Lucia Harrop

 

Admin – need pics of Anne and Rick.  Advocacy tab – get rid of it or update it? CMC activities – old posting – needs update or remove.  Add tab for 2014 for the minutes. Next month try to get everyone

 

Contractors being PI – Waleed was going to talk to NOAA about this, but Doug hasn’t heard anything. Waiting on NOAA legal. Anne- good to keep this on Dave’s radar. 

 

Rendezvous – Lornay concerned about getting the abstracts in. Rick will continue to talk to Visiting Fellows and their supervisors about their requirement to do a poster for Rendezvous.

Abstract call will happen this week. They are due April 2.  Linda sent email to Rick re: the program etc.  Katie will be helping us with part of the program.

 

Awards Committee: Had really good candidates.  The CMC will now look at the finalists’ information and let OPA committee know if we have any objections.  We have 3 good service selections, and Waleed has agreed to up the service awards to 3. Nominator appeal is the week after.  Hopefully, by March 24, final decisions.  Barry – how does a nominator get feedback re: their nominee?  They don’t.  after Rendezvous, team will re-work the web site, including examples.

 

Supervisory  Committee – Doug and some committee members have appt. with Waleed on the 4th of Apr. to discuss the report. Barry will have a personal example of the problem of supervisors. In Barry’s group, they ramp up new people to take on supervisory positions.  New person Paula Robinson to take Jon Rush’s place – from NCAR.  She is mentoring with Jon.

 

Telecommuting –  Doug still needs to set up something with Jon/Paula to discuss. 

Rick – has the updated federal telecommuting policy.  We can work up an agreement with ~4 people (Waleed?, Lab Supervisor, your Fed & CIRES supervisors) to agree on your telecommuting.  We can’t make a uniform policy across CIRES.  They are talking about removing the clause banning telecommuting (Koni’s clause).  NOAA also has a clause for ad hoc telecommuting, don’t need lab supervisor agreement.  Rick will talk to Waleed (Paula/Jon).  One problem is who will supervisor that the work is being done.  Making it a level playing field might be a problem.  One of the sticking point, for some groups, outside access is limited to a certain number, which limits how many people can actually access network.

Lucia would like to see a push for more flexibility.  Meet the modern needs of the world.

New Members – Rick has been trying to recruit new members from the NOAA divisions. Talked to one person, and she is only 50/50 about becoming a member. 

date

Monday, March 10, 2014
12:00pm
2014-03-10
 
Special Seminar: Two Decades of Observing Sea Level: How it has shaped my vision for ESOC

Special Seminar: Two Decades of Observing Sea Level: How it has shaped my vision for ESOC

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Steve Nerem

Dr. Nerem joined the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences at the University of Colorado in August 2000 after spending over 6 years at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center as a geophysicist, and over 4 years at the University of Texas at Austin as an assistant and associate professor. He received his B.S. degree in Geology from Colorado State University (1982) and his M.S. (1985) and Ph.D. (1989) degrees in Aerospace Engineering from The University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Nerem also worked for NOAA and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory during his graduate training.

Dr. Nerem has more than 90 refereed journal articles covering a variety of topics in satellite geodesy, geophysics, oceanography, climate change, atmospheric science and planetary science. He has served as an Associate Editor of the Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth, and as Geodesy Editor for Eos Transactionsof the American Geophysical Union (AGU). He also was awarded an Editors' Citation for Excellence in Refereeing by the journal Geophysical Research Letters in 1993. In 2002, he was elected to a 2-year term as Secretary of the Geodesy Section of the AGU. In 2005 he gave the honorary Bowie Lecture at the Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union and he received the AGU Geodesy Section Award in 2006. He was elected a Fellow of the AGU in 2008.

Dr. Nerem is a specialist in satellite remote sensing, satellite dynamics, sea level change, and space geodesy, the latter dealing with measuring the Earth's shape, gravity field, and sea level using space-based techniques. Dr. Nerem has participated in a variety of NASA flight projects including Lageos-2, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2, GRACE, Pioneer Venus Orbiter, and Mars Observer. In 1995, Dr. Nerem was awarded NASA's Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal for his research in the area of gravity field determination, in addition to a dozen NASA achievement and performance awards he received while at NASA. Dr. Nerem's research is currently supported by NASA and the National Science Foundation. He is currently a member of NASA's Ocean Surface Topography Science Team, the SWOT Science Definition Team and the GRACE Follow-On Project Science Team. He has led three different NASA Interdisciplinary Science (IDS) teams studying various aspects of sea level change. He was also recently selected to be the Team Lead for NASA's Sea Level Change Team (N-SLCT), an interdisciplinary team of ~40 scientists tasked with advancing sea level science using NASA satellite data. He was a Lead Author of the IPCC 5thAssessment Report (AR5) released in 2013.

Dr. Nerem has taught graduate level classes in space flight dynamics, satellite geodesy, satellite technology, remote sensing, GPS positioning and data analysis methods, and undergraduate classes in orbital dynamics, applications of GPS and senior projects. He is currently Associate Director of CU's Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, and a Fellow of CU's Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences.

Abstract: Many of today's most important Earth science problems require interdisciplinary solutions, often using advanced technology that wasn't available even a decade ago. One of these problems, climate change, can be best understood using the global observations provided by satellite-based remote sensing. In this presentation, sea level change will be used as an example of how multi-disciplinary teams of scientists can work together to advance our understanding of the Earth using remote sensing measurements. The Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) has focused on addressing just such problems. A vision for how ESOC can move forward and solve these problems using a variety of satellite, airborne, and ground-based remote sensing technology will be presented. Concluding comments will be made on the importance of ESOC for addressing societal problems and how ESOC fits into the objectives of NASA and other federal research agencies.

location

CIRES Auditorium - CIRES - University of Colorado
2014-03-10
 
 
CSTPR Noontime Seminar: Adam Briggle

CSTPR Noontime Seminar: Adam Briggle

Guinea Pigs of the Shale: Informed Consent and the Politics of Fracking

by Adam Briggle, Department of Philosophy and Religion, University of North Texas

Abstract: Critics of fracking often argue that it represents not just an unsustainable energy policy but also a crisis of democracy. The claim is that 'the people,' not corporations or technocrats, should decide where, whether, and how to frack. This is often couched in terms of 'community rights,' which has become the predominant moral and legal justification behind municipal bans.
But most of the fracking occurs in rural, unincorporated areas. So, why is the ideal of community rights (and local control) only applied to the institution of municipal government? It may be because municipal government is a convenient legal tool for anti-fracking interests to assert their will. There is certainly nothing wrong with this, but it would suggest Realpolitik is behind local bans at least as much as any idealistic reimagining of democracy.

I think that a new democratic ideal might be better formulated in terms of 'informed consent.' As is the case with human subjects in biomedical research trials, those most vulnerable to harm should have the greatest say in decisions about fracking. The current political scheme thwarts the achievement of informed consent in many ways. Municipal government is the best existing institutional vehicle for the vulnerable to meaningfully participate in decisions that impact their lives. But to live up this ideal, we need far more than greater municipal control over fracking. We need to reform our democratic institutions so that anyone made vulnerable by a proposed industrial activity would be empowered to dictate the terms of that proposal. We need to create the political conditions in which the authority of the people living in proximity to possible harms would be recognized and made legitimate. We can catch a glimpse of what this looks like with institutional review boards and with the economist Elinor Ostrom's notion of 'polycentric governance systems.' Once we do that, I think we discover just why it is that fracking is inherently anti-democratic.

Biography: Adam Briggle is an assistant professor in the Department of Philosophy and Religion Studies and a faculty fellow at the Center for the Study of Interdisciplinarity at the University of North Texas.

location

CIRES Auditorium

resources

Event Type

CSTPR
2014-03-12
 
Special Seminar: Advanced DInSAR analysis of natural and anthropogenic hazards

Special Seminar: Advanced DInSAR analysis of natural and anthropogenic hazards

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Kristy Tiampo

Dr. Kristy Tiampo received her BSc in Civil Engineering from Tufts University, USA, and her MSc in Civil Engineering from Stanford University, USA. She obtained her PhD in Geophysics from the University of Colorado at Boulder, USA, after practicing as a construction engineer for the US Army Corps of Engineers for almost 10 years, during which time she earned her certification as a Professional Engineer. In 2003 she was appointed Assistant Professor of Geophysics at Western University, Canada, and was the NSERC and Aon Benfield/ICLR Industrial Research Chair in Earthquake Hazard from 2006 through 2011. Today she is Professor and Associate Chair of the Department of Earth Sciences at Western University.

Dr. Tiampo's research program aims to provide a comprehensive understanding of the processes which govern natural and anthropogenic hazards and, in particular, those that generate earthquakes, and thus improve the associated estimates of the regional seismic hazard. This is accomplished through the integration of large quantities of remote sensing data such as space-based Global Positioning System (GPS) data, differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR), seismicity and gravity, in order to provide critical information on the nature and scale of these hazards. Her research program includes improvements into the nature and quantity of that data, innovative analysis techniques, accurate models of the potential geophysical sources, and timely and appropriate assimilation into various computational models.  Significant contributions from her research group include development of the first of a new generation of seismicity measures and effective inversions for the sources of surface deformation associated with earthquake and volcanic hazard as well as anthropogenic signals.

Abstract: In recent years, the wide variety of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired with different spatial signatures and technical characteristics has provided the impetus for advanced methodologies aimed at producing accurate estimates of surface deformation over broad spatial regions. Advanced differential interferometric SAR (DInSAR) techniques include, for example, persistent scatterer (PS) analysis (Ferretti et al., 2001), designed to identify stable, coherent image pixels, and time series analysis methods such as the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm (Berardino et al., 2002; Hooper, 2008). However, each of these techniques has important drawbacks that impact their effectiveness under specific circumstances. For example, in order to confidently select PS pixels with a high degree of accuracy, it is necessary to have at least thirty SAR images (Ferretti et al., 2001), which is both cost prohibitive and results in longer averaging time spans. While very effective in measuring slow line-of-sight (LOS) deformation, SBAS is limited in the temporal domain by the satellite revisit time, which can range from 11 to 41 days. In this talk, I present several new advanced DInSAR techniques aimed at minimizing these difficulties and improving the spatial and temporal resolution of the estimated surface displacement. These include several analysis techniques that employ quad polarized data for improved PS analysis (Samsonov and Tiampo, 2011; Alipour et al., 2013; Tiampo et al., 2013) and a multidimensional SBAS (MSBAS) method that is capable of integrating data from various SAR satellites (Samsonov et al., 2014). Finally, case studies are presented that illustrate the effectiveness of advanced DInSAR analysis for improved understanding of natural and anthropogenic hazards.

location

CIRES Auditorium - CIRES - University of Colorado
2014-03-13
 
 
 
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